2014年10月5日 星期日

摘要:伊朗西部邊界劃分與英國之交涉(1905-1914)(成大歷史學報第46期)

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    本文探討1905年至1914年之間,劃分伊朗西部邊界的問題,以及英國在其中的影響力。伊朗西部邊界與鄂圖曼帝國接壤,自十六世紀開始便有領土爭奪的問題,有多次條約簽訂劃分邊界,卻仍難以弭平爭議。十九世紀時,當英國與俄國在中亞與中東爭奪勢力範圍時,伊鄂邊界劃分也是兩列強關注的重點;英國在波斯灣一帶有重要的商貿利益,故特別重視伊朗南部邊界之劃分。二十世紀初期,伊鄂兩國的邊界爭議又起,英國原先傾向於讓伊鄂兩國自行解決,後因擔憂在這邊界問題中失去優勢地位,遂與俄國一同組織調查團,也參與了談判事宜。此外,英國在伊朗西南部、靠近伊鄂邊界區發現石油,所以更欲以劃定伊鄂邊界的方式,來維護利益及鞏固影響力。不過,在1914年一次世界大戰爆發之前,有1911年德黑蘭議定書與1913年伊斯坦堡議定書之簽訂,也有調查團隊於當地設置邊界柱,伊鄂兩國的紛爭還是沒能塵埃落定。

關鍵詞:伊朗、鄂圖曼帝國、1847年艾爾澤魯姆條約、穆哈梅拉、英國波斯石油公司、1911年德黑蘭議定書、1913年伊斯坦堡議定書

Disputes over the Ottoman-Iranian border with Britain’s Involvement 1905-1914

Chen, Li-Chiao  
Abstract
This study, mainly on Anglo-Iranian relations, discusses disputes over the Ottoman-Iranian border, and which is based on documents of the British Foreign Office, the India Office, the British Petroleum Archive and the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The border issue, inherited from arguments between Iran and the Ottoman Empire for centuries, receives less attention among scholars. This study attempts to draw a whole picture of the border issue in the early twentieth century. In addition, Britain, and Russia, had been significant roles in the issue since the nineteenth century. Britain, especially, owing to their discovery of oil in south-west Iran, close to the Ottoman-Iranian border, paid more concerns, for their security of oil interests. Up to the First World War, nevertheless, the Tehran protocol of 1911, the Istanbul protocol of 1913 and erections of border pillars in 1914 could not help the border issue settled down at all.

Keywords: Iran, Ottoman Empire, Treaty of Erzerum in 1847, Mohammerah, Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Protocol of Tehran in 1911, Protocol of Istanbul in 1913



* 英國皇家哈洛威大學歷史系博士生
  感謝兩位匿名評審對本文的修改建議。本文所提到之地名、人名、條約名,西文拼寫皆由波斯文轉譯,因而會與其他文獻有所差異。
  投稿日期:2013.12.30;接受刊登日期:2014.6.17;最後修訂日期:2014.6.28
* PhD candidate, Department of History, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Received December 30, 2013; accepted June 17, 2014; last revised June 28, 2014.

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