發表人：包修平 (Hsiu-Ping, Bao)
英國艾克斯特大學 （University of Exeter）
巴勒斯坦研究博士生 (PhD student in Palestine studies)
本文探討2003年到2006年，哈馬斯的政治轉型與其抵抗論述的關係。哈馬斯全名為「伊斯蘭抵抗運動」(Islamic resistance movement)，因過去攻擊以色列，特別是在2002年到2003年期間的自殺炸彈紀錄，遭許多西方國家列入恐怖組織名單。然而在2006年1月25日巴勒斯坦舉行議會大選，出乎眾人意料，哈馬斯成為選舉最大贏家。
Hamas’ political transformation and its resistance discourse (2003-2006)
The aim of this paper is to examine Hamas’ political transformation by scrutinizing its resistance discourse between 2003 and 2006. Hamas is an acronym of the ‘Islamic resistance movement’, which was founded in 1987. Due to its past record of suicide bombings inside Israel, Hamas has, in the past, been viewed by some Western countries as a terrorist organization. However since the election of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) held in January 2006 Hamas unexpectedly had the capability of forming a government in its own right, since it won the majority of votes.
After 2006, although Hamas has not been recognized by Western countries because Hamas had refused to recognize the legitimacy of Israel and the renouncement of violence against it, as an elected government Hamas has demonstrated its pragmatism and flexibility in response to reality. For example, International law and resolutions agreed by the security council of the United Nations are often raised by Hamas’ leadership in order to justify its right to defend itself as well as to seek moral support from the International community. On the other hand, Hamas has proposed a peace plan to Israel: If Israel evacuated from Gaza, the West Bank and the East Jerusalem and accepted the right of return of Palestinian refugees according to the International resolutions, then Hamas would be willing to cease hostilities and to coexist with Israel in terms of a 10-year truce. In spite of this, the peace proposal has not only been rejected but it has been treated by Israel and others as a strategy that is meant to put in place the ‘destruction of Israel’. But there is no denying that the conflict between Hamas and Israel has dramatically decreased compared with the period between 2003 and 2006, inasmuch as there is no record of suicide bombing undertaken by Hamas. At the same time, Hamas has stressed the necessity and legitimacy of the restoration of Palestinian rights rather than military resistance.
Many scholars believe that Hamas’ transformation is not accidental. In reality, Hamas has gradually changed its discourse from the intensity of the armed struggle to its political participation in the period from 2003 to 2006. This transformation was considered to be in response to the changes in the external and internal environment. The way that Hamas itself interprets the transition and its implications, is beyond the scope of the existing scholarship.
This paper argues that the ‘resistance discourse’ or the ‘resistance project’ is the means by which Hamas adapted to a new environment. This discourse is prevalent in a large number of Hamas’ leaders’ interviews between 2003 and 2006, which could enable readers to understand further Hamas’ ideology with regard to its rejection of Israel and how Hamas’ perspective on various issues such as: the Israeli occupation, the concept of peace and war and its view on democracy and election. Moreover, this discourse could explain the root cause of Hamas’ decision to participate in politics in early 2004, a move which has also been neglected by academic research.